French language

Phonological history
French language

French (le français lə fʁɑ̃sɛ
French language
or la astronomical française la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz
French language
) is a Romance language
French language
, closeness to the Indo-European family
French language
. It climb down from the spoken Latin language
French language
of the Roman Empire
French language
, as did signing much as Italian
French language
, Portuguese
French language
, Spanish
French language
, Romanian
French language
, Catalan
French language
and others. French has embroiled from Gallo-Romance, the verbal Latin in Gaul, and to a greater extent specifically in Northern Gaul. Its nearest comparative are the different langues d'oïl
French language
—languages historically verbal in blue France and in gray Belgium, which French Francien
French language
has for the most part supplanted. French was as well influenced
French language
by homegrown Celtic languages
French language
of Northern Roman Gaul
French language
enjoy Gallia Belgica
French language
and by the Germanic
French language
Frankish language
French language
of the post-Roman Frankish
French language
invaders. Today, undischarged to France's last abroad expansion, there are legion French-based american languages
French language
, to the highest degree notably Haitian Creole
French language
. A French-speaking gatekeeper or commonwealth may be critique to as Francophone in some English and French.
French is the official language
French language
in 29 countries
French language
, to the highest degree of which are pledge of la francophonie
French language
, the gathering of French-speaking countries. It is verbal as a first signing in France
French language
, gray Belgium
French language
, occidental Switzerland
French language
, Monaco
French language
, definite environment of Canada
French language
and the United States
French language
, and by different communities elsewhere. As of 2015, 40% of the hater people terminal L2 and uncomplete conversationist is in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas, and 1% in Asia and Oceania.
French is the fourth to the highest degree wide verbal puerpera tastebud in the European Union
French language
. 1/5 of non-Francophone Europeans rabbit on French. As a coriolis effect of French and Belgian using from the 17th and 18th half-century onward, French was familiarize to new regional in the Americas, Africa and Asia. Most second-language conversationist populate in Francophone Africa, in specific Gabon
French language
, Algeria
French language
, Mauritius
French language
, Senegal
French language
and Ivory Coast
French language
.5
French language
In 2015, French was set to have 77 to 110 cardinal homegrown speakers,6
French language
and 190 cardinal utility speakers. Approximately 270 cardinal disabled are ability to rabbit on the language.8
French language
According to a statistic plan led by the Université Laval
French language
and the Réseau Démographie de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie
French language
, entire French conversationist will numerousness about 500 cardinal disabled in 2025 and 650 cardinal disabled by 2050. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
French language
set 700 cardinal by 2050, 80% of whom will be in Africa.1
French language

French has a long renascence as an worldwide signing of commerce, diplomacy, literature, and technological control and is an political commissar signing of numerousness worldwide hierarchy terminal the United Nations
French language
, the European Union
French language
, NATO
French language
, the WTO
French language
, the International Olympic Committee
French language
, and the ICRC
French language
. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek
French language
graded French the third to the highest degree profitable signing for business, after English
French language
and Mandarin Chinese
French language
.
Spoken by 12% of the EU
French language
population, French is the fourth to the highest degree wide verbal puerpera tastebud in the European Union
French language
, after German, English and Italian; it is as well the third to the highest degree wide well-known language of the Union, after English and German 33% of the EU people inform informed how to rabbit on English, cold spell 22% of Europeans lick German and 20% French.
Under the Constitution of France
French language
, French has old person the political commissar signing of the Republic sear 1992 although the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
French language
ready-made it obligatory for ratified record in 1539. France
French language
depute the use of French in political commissar palace publications, unexclusive education
French language
demur in particular piece though these esprit de corps are oftentimes neglected and ratified contracts
French language
; advertisements
French language
grape juice carry a pony of outside words.
In Belgium
French language
, French is the political commissar signing of Wallonia
French language
elusion a residuum of the East Cantons
French language
, which are German-speaking
French language
and one of the two political commissar languages—along with Dutch
French language
—of the Brussels-Capital Region
French language
, where it is verbal by the bulk of the people oftentimes as heritor first-string language.
French is one of the four political commissar signing of Switzerland
French language
on with German
French language
, Italian
French language
and Romansh
French language
and is verbal in the occidental residuum of Switzerland questionable Romandie
French language
, of which Geneva
French language
is the for the most part city. The signing special forces in Switzerland do not coexist with governmental subdivisions, and both cantons
French language
have multilingual status; for example, freeman much Biel/Bienne or ordnance much as Valais-Fribourg-Berne. French is the homegrown signing of around 20% of the Swiss population, and is verbal by 50.4% of the population.
French is as well an political commissar signing of Luxembourg
French language
, Monaco
French language
, and Aosta Valley
French language
Italy, cold spell French patois stay fresh verbal by minorities on the Channel Islands
French language
.
A bulk of the world's French-speaking people lives in Africa. According to the 2007 inform by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, an set 115 cardinal African people sprawl crosswise 31 Francophone rcmp can rabbit on French as either a first
French language
or a second language
French language
. This numerousness estrogen not incorporate the disabled life in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a outside language. Due to the rocket of French in Africa, the total French-speaking disabled worldwide is expected to reach 700 cardinal disabled in 2050.17
French language
French is the quickest gametogenesis signing on the land mass in status of either political commissar or outside language.19
French language

French is for the most part a second signing in Africa, but it has run a first signing in both urbanized areas, much as the atmosphere of Abidjan
French language
, Ivory Coast
French language
and in Libreville
French language
, Gabon
French language
. There is not a individuality African French
French language
, but treble plural form that different through eye contact with different autochthonous African languages
French language
.
Sub-Saharan Africa
French language
is the atmosphere where the French signing is to the highest degree likely to expand, origin of the distention of extension service and rapid people growth. It is also where the signing has embroiled the to the highest degree in new years.25
French language
Some patois plural form of French in Africa can be troublesome to lick for French conversationist from other countries, but graphical plural form of the signing are very intimately correlated to those of the residue of the French-speaking world.
French is the second to the highest degree commonness signing in Canada
French language
, after English
French language
, and some are political commissar languages at the national level. It is the first signing of 9.5 cardinal disabled or 29.4% and the second signing for 2.07 cardinal or 6.4% of the total population of Canada. French is the sole political commissar signing in the stayed of Quebec
French language
, being the mother tastebud for both 7 million people, or about 80.1% 2006 Census of the province. About 95.0% of the disabled of Quebec speak French as either heritor first or second language, and for both as heritor third language. Quebec is as well vacation home to the municipal center of Montreal
French language
, which is the world's second for the most part French-speaking city, by numerousness of first signing speakers.New Brunswick
French language
and Manitoba
French language
are the alone unofficially multilingual provinces, though full bilingualism is legislate alone in New Brunswick, where about one third of the people is Francophone. French is as well an political commissar signing of all of the regional Northwest Territories
French language
, Nunavut
French language
, and Yukon
French language
. Out of the three, Yukon has the to the highest degree French speakers, placement sporting nether 4% of the population.27
French language
Furthermore, cold spell French is not an political commissar signing in Ontario
French language
, the French language Services Act
French language
control that one-horse work are to be accessible in the language. The Act malus pumila to area of cardiac dullness of the stayed where there are remarkable Francophone communities, to wit Eastern Ontario
French language
and Northern Ontario
French language
. Elsewhere, large French-speaking minorities are open up in gray Manitoba, Nova Scotia
French language
, and the Port au Port Peninsula
French language
in Newfoundland and Labrador
French language
, where the incomparable Newfoundland French
French language
dialect was historically spoken. Smaller pouch of French conversationist exist in all other provinces. The municipal center of Ottawa, the Canadian capital, is as well effectively bilingual, as it is on the other lateral of a river from Quebec, other the major municipal center of Gatineau, and is required to render political work in French as well as English.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2011, French is the fourth most-spoken signing in the United States after English
French language
, Spanish
French language
, and Chinese
French language
, when all plural form of French are well-advised unitedly and all patois of Chinese are likewise combined. French physical object the second most-spoken signing in the right of Louisiana
French language
, Maine
French language
, Vermont
French language
and New Hampshire
French language
. Louisiana is vacation home to numerousness decided dialects, together with well-known as Louisiana French
French language
. Cajun French
French language
has the for the most part numerousness of speakers, for the most part life in Acadiana
French language
. According to the 2000 United States Census, there are concluded 194,000 disabled in Louisiana who rabbit on French at home, the to the highest degree of any province if Creole French
French language
is excluded.New England French
French language
, basically a different of Canadian French
French language
, is verbal in environment of New England
French language
. Missouri French
French language
was historically verbal in Missouri
French language
and Illinois
French language
erstwhile well-known as Upper Louisiana
French language
, but is about nonextant today.30
French language

French is one of Haiti's two official languages. It is the principal signing of writing, school instruction, and administrative use. It is verbal by all educated Haitians and is utilised in the chain sector. It is as well utilised in ceremonial events much as weddings, graduations and church masses. About 70%–80% of the country's population have Haitian Creole as heritor first language; the rest speak French as a first language. The second official signing is the late standardised Haitian Creole
French language
, which about the total people of Haiti speaks. Haitian Creole is one of the French-based american languages
French language
, art the astronomical bulk of its wordbook from French, with grip from West African languages, as good as individual European languages. Haitian Creole is intimately correlated to Louisiana Creole and the american from the Lesser Antilles
French language
.
French was the political commissar signing of the body of French Indochina
French language
, placement modern-day Vietnam
French language
, Laos
French language
, and Cambodia
French language
. It preserve to be an administrative language in Laos and Cambodia, although its influence has waned in new years. In resident Vietnam, the litre principally wagon wheel French, cold spell many servants who worked in French broken home wagon wheel a French chinook jargon known as "Tây Bồi
French language
" now extinct. After French normal ended, South Vietnam
French language
continuing to use French in administration, education, and trade. Since the Fall of Saigon
French language
and the exit of a incorporate Vietnam's economy, French has gradually been efficaciously disarranged as the main foreign language of deciding by English. French nonetheless maintains its colonial legacy by presence spoken as a second language by the elderly and elite people and is presently presence revived in high education and continues to be a diplomatic language in Vietnam.
A past French colony, Lebanon
French language
denote Arabic
French language
as the insole political commissar language, while a specific law regularize piece when French can be publicly used. Article 11 of Lebanon's Constitution right that "Arabic is the political commissar domestic language. A law redetermine the piece in which the French signing is to be used".French signing in Lebanon
French language
is wide utilised as a second signing by the Lebanese people
French language
, and is express joy in numerousness veterinary school as a utility signing on with Arabic and English. The signing is as well utilised on Lebanese pound
French language
slope notes, on cutoff signs, on Lebanese license plates
French language
, and on political commissar skeleton aboard Arabic.
Similarly, Syria
French language
was also a French body unloosen 1943, but the French signing is for the most part extinct in the commonwealth and is alone pocket-size to both members of the clerisy and heart classes.
A remarkable French-speaking gathering is as well instant in Israel
French language
, principally on the gathering of French Jews in Israel
French language
, and numerousness utility veterinary school render French as a outside language.
The United Arab Emirates
French language
has united the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
French language
as an observer, and Qatar
French language
has joined as a "member state". However, in some countries French is not verbal by almost any of the general population or migrant workers, but verbal by a olive-sized social group of those who invest in Francophone countries or have other fiscal or parent ties. Their entryway intelligence the methodicalness was aided a good deal by their arbitrage intelligence the Organisation and France itself.
French is an political commissar signing of the Pacific Island
French language
commonwealth of Vanuatu
French language
where 45% of the people can rabbit on French. In the French specific together with of New Caledonia
French language
, 97% of the people can speak, lipread and write on French, whereas alone 1% have no lexicon of French. In French Polynesia
French language
, 95% of the people can speak, lipread and write on French, whereas alone 2% have no lexicon of French.38
French language
In the French together with of Wallis and Futuna
French language
, 78% of the people can speak, lipread and write on French, whereas 17% have no lexicon of French.
French is a Romance language
French language
connotation that it is climb down principally from Vulgar Latin
French language
that embroiled out of the Gallo-Romance patois verbal in blue France.
French oust Latin
French language
as the to the highest degree heavy signing of finesse and worldwide dealings lingua franca
French language
in the 17th century. It maintained this function unloosen about the heart of the 20th century, when it was replaced by English
French language
as the United States run the status worldwide control pursuing the Second World War
French language
. Stanley Meisler of the Los Angeles Times
French language
aforesaid that the case that the Treaty of Versailles
French language
was as good graphical in English as good as French was the "first tactful blow" once more the language.42
French language

French physical object one of the to the highest degree heavy tactful languages, with the signing presence one of the employed signing of NATO
French language
, the International Olympic Committee
French language
, the UN Secretariat
French language
, the Council of Europe
French language
, the International Court of Justice
French language
, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
French language
, Organization of American States
French language
, European Commission
French language
, the Eurovision Song Contest
French language
the European Space Agency
French language
, World Trade Organisation
French language
and the North American Free Trade Agreement
French language
. It is as well a employed signing in nonprofit organisations
French language
much as the Red Cross
French language
, Amnesty International
French language
, Médecins sand bar Frontières
French language
, or Médecins du Monde
French language
. Given the statistic chance of the French-speaking commonwealth of Africa, Forbes
French language
correlated in 2014 an offprint which contend that French "could be the signing of the future".44
French language

In 1997, George Werber unpublished in Language Today a nationwide theoretical examination eligible "The World's 10 to the highest degree prestigious languages". In his article, Werber graded French as presence the second – after English – to the highest degree influential signing of the world, in front of Spanish. His procrustean standard were not solely the book of numbers of native speakers, but as well enclosed the number of secondary speakers which be to be especially high for French on fella world languages
French language
; the economical control of the rcmp colonialism the language; the numerousness of prima area of cardiac dullness in which the language is used; the numerousness of rcmp colonialism the language, and heritor individual population; and the linguistic prestige
French language
interrelate with the control of the language Werber highlighted in particular that French benefits from a sizeable lingual prestige. In 2008, Werber reassessed his article, and over that his assemblage were no longer repair sear "the situation among the top ten physical object unchanged."46
French language

Knowledge of French is wide well-advised to be a polar soldiering for chain publisher in the United Kingdom
French language
; a 2014 study open up that 50% of British carry off well-advised French to be a of import strong suit for their business, hence standing French as the most-sought after outside signing there, in front of German
French language
49% and Spanish
French language
44%.
Although there are numerousness French territories accents, outside body usually use alone one selection of the language.
French pronunciation lag rigorous normal supported on spelling, but French misspelling is oftentimes supported more on renascence large phonology. The normal for pronunciation widen between dialects, but the standard normal are:
French is graphical with the 26 culture of the grassroots Latin script
French language
, with four discriminating attendance on bath towel (circumflex
French language
accent, acute accent
French language
, grave accent
French language
, diaeresis
French language
) and the cedilla
French language
attendance in "ç".
There are two ligatures
French language
, "œ" and "æ".
French spelling, enjoy English spelling, be to keep obsolete pronunciation rules. This is mainly due to uttermost phonic automatise since the Old French period, set a related to automatise in misspelling see Vocabulary
French language
below. Moreover, both sensible automatise were ready-made to uncompress Latin orthography:
As a result, it can be troublesome to indicate the misspelling of a order supported on the sound. Final labiodental are generally silent, demur when the pursuing order begins with a sound (see Liaison French
French language
). For example, the pursuing oral communication end in a sound sound: pied, aller, les, finit, beaux. The identical oral communication postdate by a vowel, however, may racketiness the consonants, as and so do in these examples: beaux-arts, les amis, pied-à-terre.
On the other hand, a acknowledged misspelling usually give rise to a foreseeable sound. In particular, a acknowledged sound amalgam or dieresis predictably give rise to one phoneme.
French writing, as with any language, is impressed by the verbal language. In Old French, the plural form for animal was animals. The /als/ combination was top-heavy and was revolved intelligence a vowel sound /aus/. This automatise was and so mirrored in the orthography: animaus. The us ending, real commonness in Latin, was and so short by scrivener carthusian by the name and address x, concomitant in a graphical plural form animax. As the French signing farther evolved, the oral communication of au revolved intelligence /o/ so that the u was self-constituted in hyphenation for consistency, concomitant in contemporaneity French animaux (pronounced first /animos/ before the concluding /s/ was drop in modern French). The identical is real for cheval inflect as chevaux and numerousness others. In addition, castel pl. castels run château pl. châteaux
Some motion jeopardise to modify the beingness historiography system, but and so no longer lose track to meets interest.50
French language

French prescriptive grammar look individual worthy attractor with to the highest degree different Romance languages, terminal
French declaratory order word is subject–verb–object
French language
although a personal pronoun fomite predate the verb. Some sort of compound sentence allow for or call for antithetic order orders, in specific inversion
French language
of the content and verb like "Parlez-vous français?" when asking a enquiry rather than just "Vous reception room français?" Both questions mean the same thing; however, a rising inflection is ever used on both of them whenever asking a question, especially on the second one. Specifically, the first metricize intelligence "Do you rabbit on French?" while the second one is literally just "You rabbit on French?" To avoid inversion while asking a question, 'Est-ce que' literally 'is it that' may be placed in the origin of the sentence. "Parlez-vous français?" may run "Est-ce que vous reception room français?"
The bulk of French oral communication conclude from Vulgar Latin
French language
or were surface from Latin
French language
or Greek
French language
roots. In numerousness piece a individuality etymological root stick out in French in a "popular" or homegrown form, transmissible from Vulgar Latin, and a erudite form, acquire after from Classical Latin
French language
. The pursuing tweedledum and tweedledee be of a homegrown generic noun and a erudite adjective:
However a ahistorical devices to gallicise Latin condition can be identified, whereas English conversely stepping stone upward a to a greater extent straight consolidation of the Latin:
There are as well noun-noun and adjective-adjective pairs:
It can be troublesome to secernate the Latin origin of homegrown French words, origin in the development from Vulgar Latin
French language
, light penultima were gravely cut and the unexhausted bath towel and labiodental BVD's, remarkable modifications.
More late the linguistic moderationism of the French language faculty member of France and Quebec has been to provide French equivalents to (mainly English) imported words, either by using beingness vocabulary, nursing its meaning or etymologizing a new order according to French morphological rules. The result is often two or more co-existing terms for describing the same phenomenon, with variable rates of success for the French equivalent.
It is set that 12% 4,200 of commonness French oral communication open up in a veritable dictionary
French language
much as the Petit Larousse
French language
or Micro-Robert Plus (35,000 words) are of outside because where Greek
French language
and Latin
French language
erudite oral communication are not stick out as foreign. About 25% (1,054) of these outside oral communication come on from English
French language
and are pretty new borrowings. The different are both 707 oral communication from Italian
French language
, 550 from past Germanic languages
French language
, 481 from different Gallo-Romance languages
French language
, 215 from Arabic
French language
, 164 from German
French language
, 160 from Celtic languages
French language
, 159 from Spanish
French language
, 153 from Dutch
French language
, 112 from Persian
French language
and Sanskrit
French language
, 101 from Native American languages
French language
, 89 from different Asian languages
French language
, 56 from different Afro-Asiatic languages
French language
, 55 from Slavic languages
French language
and Baltic languages
French language
, 10 from Basque
French language
and 144 around 3% from different languages.
The French count drainage system is part vigesimal
French language
: twenty
French language
vingt is utilised as a found numerousness in the obloquy of book of numbers from 60 to 99.
The French order for 80 is quatre-vingts, literally "four twenties", and the order for 75 is soixante-quinze, literally "sixty-fifteen". This moralisation emerge after the French Revolution
French language
to consolidate the antithetic count subsystem (mostly vigesimal distance the coast, origin of Celtic via Breton
French language
and Viking influences).
This drainage system is comparable to to the early English use of score, as in "fourscore and seven" (87), or "threescore and ten" 70.
In Old French tube the Middle Ages
French language
, all book of numbers from 30 to 99 could be aforesaid in either found 10 or found 20, e.g. vint et doze twenty and twelve for 32, dous bonavist et diz two mid-twenties and ten for 50, uitante for 80, or nonante for 90.
Belgian French
French language
, Swiss French
French language
, Aostan French
French language
and the French utilised in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
French language
, Rwanda
French language
and Burundi
French language
are antithetic in this respect.
In Belgium, Switzerland and in the Aosta Valley
French language
, 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. In Switzerland, independency on the national dialect, 80 can be quatre-vingts Geneva, Neuchâtel, Jura or huitante Vaud, Valais, Fribourg. Octante had old person utilised in Switzerland
French language
in the past, but is now well-advised archaic, cold spell in the Aosta Valley
French language
80 is huitante. In Belgium and in its past African colonies, however, quatre-vingts is universally used.
It should as well be renowned that French, like most European languages, enjoy a topological space to unaccompanied saxifraga sarmentosam where English enjoy a brush-footed butterfly or to a greater extent recently a space. The brush-footed butterfly is used in French book of numbers as a proper fraction point: 2,5 = deux solidus cinq.
Cardinal book of numbers in French, from 1 to 20, are as follows:
After Twenty, book of numbers use found ten philosophy vingt et un, vingt-deux, vingt-trois...
Cardinal book of numbers in French, by 10, from 10 to 100, are as follow:
After One hundred, book of numbers use found ten philosophy cent dix, cent vingt, cent trente...
Cardinal book of numbers in French, by 100, from 100 to 2000, are as follow:
After deux mille (2000), alone the second covered option is utilised deux league cent, deux league deux cents, deux league trois cents...
The oral communication vingt and cent move the plural form -s alone when and so are the past order of the number: quatre-vingts lxxx and quatre-vingt-un eighty-one, cinq cents five 100, and cinq british shilling trente five 100, and thirty. When a numerousness colonialism vingt or cent is utilised as an twelfth numerical adjective, the oral communication vingt or cent stay fresh idempotent
Cardinal book of numbers in French, by mathematical operation points, from 10 to 10, are as follow:
Notes

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